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1 week ago

Writing & Speaking :: The Differences Between Undergraduate and Graduate Writing and Research

On the face of it, the differences between undergraduate and graduate level writing and research should be rather obvious. After all, we expect more of our graduate students than we do of our undergraduate students. Education is a progression, something we build upon and improve upon as we travel through the years. However, just because this makes intuitive sense does not mean that the actual differences between the written products of each level of study are that clear. After all, we expect the grammar, punctuation, mechanics, and other such issues to be correct in both cases. So let's examine some of the differences that should be in play when comparing the two.

First, graduate level students are expected to think on a higher level than undergraduate students. This means the vocabulary should be more sophisticated; the thoughts should be better developed and deeper; the analysis should be stronger; and so forth. The topics don't necessarily have to be very different for each level, but the approach to, and handling of, those topics should differ. For example, an undergraduate and graduate student could each write a paper about global climate change. But while the undergraduate level paper might talk about Gore's "An Inconvenient Truth," and discuss how that movie made some excellent points, the graduate level paper might reference a UN white paper on the matter, and analyze what effect that paper has had upon international policy.

Second, graduate level students are expected to have read and written about a much wider array of subjects, and learned about a much larger variety of theorists, scientists, and other scholars in their particular field(s) of study, than are undergraduate level students. As a result, graduate level papers should include a much deeper referencing of, and building upon, those previous thinkers. It should be clear, not in a name-dropping way, but in a way that shows a true integration of a wealth of knowledge, that the graduate level student has integrated previous work and is building upon it.

Finally, graduate level writing and research (but especially writing) should show a much greater percentage of original thought than does undergraduate level writing. In the early college years, students are absorbing a great deal of knowledge about their chosen area(s) of study. It is not to be expected - and in fact, it is often frowned upon - that students at that level are thinking original thoughts about their disciplines. For example, it would not make sense that an undergraduate would believe he had the answer to a philosophical dilemma that had plagued philosophers for centuries - his depth and breadth of knowledge in philosophy medical communications jobs near me would simply not be there. However, by the time people are graduate students - especially doctoral students - it is expected that they have absorbed that knowledge and are starting to think their own thoughts that extend that knowledge base. Of course, graduate level students continue to research what others have discovered before them, but again, they are expected to contribute to their field(s), while undergraduate level students are not.

Certainly, there are other differences between these two types of writing. However, the basic idea is that much more is expected of graduate level students in the way of sophisticated writing and original thought than is expected of undergraduate level students. While not all graduate students are free-thinking geniuses, and while not all undergraduate students are mere sponges, these general guidelines apply.

1 month ago

Former MI6 spy known to U.S. agencies is author of reports on Trump in Russia | Reuters

By Mark Hosenball


WASHINGTON Christopher Steele, who wrote reports on compromising material Russian operatives allegedly had collected on U.S. President-elect Donald Trump,

3 months ago

Smile Design Mukilteo: Customize Your Smile

Ever wanted to customize your smile to your liking? A new revolutionary technique under cosmetic dentistry, aptly named 'smile design', allows you to do exactly that. No matter what your age is, you can still get your teeth whitening home remedies smile altered according to your preferences. A few visits to a cosmetic dentist, followed by a few minor, painless surgeries are all you will need to flash your new smile proudly to the world.

There are a few criteria, which determine which smile would look on a particular person's face. These include:

1.Shape of your face: If you have a long face, you may need flatter teeth, so that your face teeth whitening tips would look slightly more oval. On the other hand, if you have an oval face with more attractive features towards the center of the face, a couple of long, central incisors are just what the doctor will order.

2.Your projected personality: What type of personality would you like to portray to others? If you want to appear bolder and more energetic, you need what dentists call a sexy smile. Again, if you wish to appear quieter, and more intelligent, then you need a sophisticated smile. Finally, if you wish to appear easygoing and want to exude warmth, look no further than a sporty smile.

3.Your actual age (or projected age): How old do you wish to appear to onlookers? If you wish to look younger, go for a sexy smile with longer central incisors. Want to appear more mature? Then a sophisticated smile is certainly perfect for you.

Smile design service offered by cosmetic dentists in Mukilteo, Washington is one of the best in the United States. When you visit one of the cosmetic dentists in the area, you will be asked some questions regarding your choice of smile, and the reason you made the choice. You will also get to see pictures of every smile type, so that you can make a better choice.

Some cosmetic dentists are equipped with computers that have special types of graphical software installed. They can show you exactly how your new smile would look on your face. An experienced dentist may not always agree fully with your choice of smile. Be prepared to be contradicted on occasions. However, the final choice will always be yours to make. It's your smile, and you will be the ultimate judge of what you want. So, go ahead, visit a smile design facility in Mukilteo today, to get the perfect smile for yourself.

By: Melville Jackson 1

Article Directory:

Mukilteo Dentist - Lynnwood Dentist Dale Townsan has extensive experience in cosmetic dentistry, and serves the communities of Seattle, Everett, Lynnwood, Edmonds, Mukilteo, Shoreline and Lynnwood, Washington (WA).

3 months ago

Soccer legend Pelé sues Samsung over image in newspaper ad | Reuters

Brazilian soccer legend Pel

4 months ago


You may have heard in advertisements that some dental products prevent periodontal disease. Periodontal disease refers to diseases affecting the periodontal tissues. The periodontal tissues collectively refer to the gingiva, the periodontal ligament (the PDL), the cementum and the alveolar process. The gingiva is the term used in dentistry for the gums. The periodontal ligament secures the tooth in its socket. The cementum encases the roots of the teeth, anchoring the teeth to the alveolar bone. The alveolar bone is bone that contains the sockets of the teeth. These tissues collectively aid in supporting the teeth, securing them in the jawbones.

4 months ago

Dental Career |

8 Non-clinical Career Options for Dentists

Non-clinical career option for dentists - dental professor

Many dental insurance companies, equipment manufacturing units, and research institutes provide dentists with non-clinical career opportunities. Buzzle discusses a few non-clinical career options for dentists.

How is a Dentist Different from an Orthodontist?

4 months ago

Beauty :: Why Do Many People Like Layered Hair?

Not only do layers help to same day dentures from experts add volume and lift to fine hair types, they can minimize the weight of thick hair. In addition, layers can work wonders on unruly curls that have too much volume for the wearer. Layers are a timeless hair cutting technique that always remain in style, regardless of current hair trends.

Layered hairstyles are popular. They work best on straight hair. Very coarse and curly hair doesn't lend itself easily to layers. Hair layers can be accentuated same day dentures from experts with highlights to flatter your face shape. A constant irritation for people with long hair is the lack of new hairstyle alternatives that are simple and quick. In fact, long hair can be easily turned into beautifully layered hairstyles.Long layers, razor cut with staggered lengths, are showcased in dark flaxen tresses. The side-swept fringe area and forward layering frames the face beautifully. Combining structured, but straight lengths. The color is graduated light to dark from the upper to the lower layers. The overall effect is one of wonton style and in-your-face attitude.

Medium hair is generally defined as reaching from below the jawline to several inches below the collar, though different stylists may classify hair lengths differently. When choosing a layered hair style for medium length hair, it is important to consider not only the length of the hair, but also the shape of your face so you have a style that best suits your features. Layers can add softness, distinction, and mystery to any style, depending on how they are cut and coordinated.

Layering can be difficult on short to medium hair types. If you're cutting your own hair, you'll want to book an appointment with a professional hairdresser unless your hair is long. There are two types of layered cuts. Over directed layers result in hair that graduates in length, while basic layers create even lengths of hair throughout the head.

Square layers are a popular style element for most of today's current cuts. The technique creates defined layer groupings and is ideal for women with long, thick and wavy hair who want to keep their hair from appearing too bulky or voluminous toward the bottom of the hairstyle.Creating square layers is relatively simple. The hair should be sectioned off into horizontal sections on each side of the head. The number of sections depends on the number of 'layer sets' desired, and on the length of the hair overall.

There is a variety of layered hairstyles on the markets today. Many websites such as even provide virtual pictures of all kinds of hair layers. It is really a good way to view them as references to choose your favorite layered hair.